Chronological bibliography of Spanish Flu

Books, journal and magazine articles, theses (but not newspaper articles); about, or with parts about, Spanish Flu; organized chronologically to reveal trajectories of study; listed alphabetically within years.

A work in progress.


The Flu Epidemic of 1918. Frederick Lewis Allen. Scribner’s Magazine, Vol CIII, No. 1, January 1938, pp. 27-30, 74.


The Problem of Influenza. George W. Gray. Harper’s Magazine, January 1940, pp. 166-76.


A Plague On Us. Geddes Smith. New York: The Commonwealth Fund, 1941.

The Influenza Epidemic of 1918–19 in San Francisco. Arseny K. Hrenoff. Military Surgeon, 89 (1941), 804–11


The Great Epidemic: When the Spanish Influenza Struck. A. A. Hoehling. Boston: Little, Brown & Co, 1961.


The 1918 Kansas City Influenza Pandemic. C. K. McShane. Missouri Historical Review, 63 (1968), 55–70.

The Influenza Pandemic of 1918–19 in the Perspective of a Half Century. Fred B. Rogers. American Journal of Public Health, 58 (1968), 2192–94


Invasion by Virus: Can It Happen Again? Charles Graves. London: Icon Books, 1969.

Newark and the Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918. S. Galishoff. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 43 (1969), pp. 246–58.

Virus of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic Era: New evidence about its antigenic character. P. Brown, D. C. Gajdusek and J. A. Morris. Science, Vol. 166, Issue  3901, October 3, 1969, pp. 117-9.


Influenza 1918-1919: a study in mortality. Robert S. Katz. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Vol. 48, No. 3, Fall 1974, pp. 416-422. 

The Plague of the Spanish Lady: The Influenza Pandemic of 1918–19. Richard Collier. London: Macmillan, 1974.


A City Faces an Epidemic. Janice P. Dickin McGinnis. Alberta History, [vol] 24, no. 4, 1976, pp. 1-11. 

Epidemic and Peace: 1918. Alfred W. Crosby. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1976.  Republished as America’s Forgotten Pandemic: The Influenza of 1918. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989, second ed. 2003.

The ‘Flu, 1918. Helene D. Olson. Kansas Quarterly, 8 (1976), 35–40.

Influenza — 1918: A Revisit? L. Weinstein. New England Journal of Medicine, 294 (1976), 1058–60


Epidemic and Public Health: Influenza in Vancouver, 1918-1919. Margaret W. Andrews. BC Studies, No. 34, Summer 1977, pp. 21-44.

The Impact of Epidemic Influenza: Canada, 1918-1919. Janice P. Dickin McGinnis. Historical Papers, 12, Number 1 (1977): 20-140.

Influenza: The Last Great Plague: An unfinished story of discovery. W I B Beveridge. New York: Prodist division of Neale Watson Academic Publications, Inc, 1977 , pp 30-33, 42-43. Internet Archive. 

A West Virginia County’s Experience with the 1918 Influenza Epidemic. W. T. Doherty. West Virginia History, 38 (1977), pp. 136-40.


Christchurch in the 1918 Influenza Epidemic: A preliminary study. G. W. Rice. New Zealand Journal of History, 13 (1979), pp. 109–37.

An Epidemic among the Bakgatla: the Influenza of 1918. John V. Spears. Botswana Notes and Records, Vol. 11 (1979), pp. 69-76.

Pandemic Influenza 1918. N. R. Grist. The British Medical Journal, Vol. 2, No. 6205, Dec. 22, 1979, pp. 1632-1633.


McLean County and the Influenza Epidemic of 1918–19. Karen A. Walters. Illinois State Historical Society Journal, 74 (1981), 130–44

The Pathophysiology of Influenzal Pneumonia in 1918. K. M. Stevens. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 25 (1981) 115-25.


A Dark and Terrible Moment: The Spanish flu epidemic of 1918 in New Mexico. Richard Melzer. New Mexico Historical Review, 57 (1982), 213–36.


The Influenza Epidemic of 1918–19 in the Gold Coast. K. David Patterson. Journal of African History, 24:4 (1983), 485–502

The Silent Enemy: Canada and the Deadly Flu of 1918. Elaine Pettigrew. Saskatoon: Western Producer Prairie Books, 1983.


The diffusion of influenza : patterns and paradigms. Gerald F. Pyle. Totowa, N.J.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1986.

Pandemic Influenza 1700-1900: A Study in Historical Epidemiology. K. David Patterson. Totowa, N.J.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1986.


Black November: the 1918 influenza pandemic in New Zealand. Geoffrey W. Rice and Linda Bryder. Wellington, N.Z.: Allen & Unwin, 1988; Christchurch: Canterbury University Press, 2005.


The Impact of the Spanish Influenza Pandemic in Saskatchewan, 1918-1919. Maureen K. Lux. M.A. thesis, University of Saskatchewan, 1989.


“Black October:” The Impact of the Spanish Influenza Epidemic of 1918 on South Africa. Howard Phillips. Archives Yearbook for South African History, 53rd Year, Vol 1. Pretoria: Government Printer, 1990. [Ph.D. thesis, 1984.]


The geography and mortality of the 1918 influenza pandemic. D. K. Patterson and G. F. Pyle, The Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Spring 1991, 65(1), pp. 4-21.

The Influenza Epidemic of 1918–1919 in France: Contemporary concepts of aetiology, therapy and prevention. Martha Hildreth. Social History of Medicine, 4:2 (1991), 277–94.


1918-19 Pandemic of Influenza: The Urban Impact in the Western World. Fred R. van Hartesveldt, editor. Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 1993.

“There Were Young People and Old People and Babies Dying Every Week:” The 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic at Norway House. D. Ann Herring. Ethnohistory, Vol. 41, No. 1, Winter 1993, pp. 73-105.


“The Bitter Flats:” The 1918 Influenza Epidemic in Saskatchewan. Maureen K. Lux. Saskatchewan History, [vol] 49, no. 1, Spring 1997, pp. 3-13.

The Dead Zone. Malcolm Gladwell. The New Yorker, September 22, 1997, pp. 52-67. 

Initial Genetic Characterization of the 1918 “Spanish” Influenza Virus. Jeffery K. Taubenberger, Ann H. Reid, Amy E. Krafft, Karen E, Bijwaard and Thomas G. Fanning, Science, Vol. 275, Issue 5307, March 21, 1997, pp. 1793–6. 


Structured Epidemic Models and the Spread of Influenza in the Central Canadian Subarctic. Lisa Sattenspiel and D. Ann Herring. Human Biology, Vol. 70, No. 1, February 1998, pp. 91-115.


1918 Spanish Influenza: The Secrets Remain Elusive. Robert G. Webster. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 96, No. 4, February 16, 1999, pp. 1164-6.

The 1918 ‘Spanish’ Flu: Pearls From Swine? Kennedy F. Shortridge. Nature Medicine, Vol. 5, No. 4, April 1999, pp. 384-5.

British Columbia First Nations and the Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19. Mary-Ellen Kelm. BC Studies, No. 122, Summer 1999, pp. 23-47.

Catching Cold: 1918’s forgotten tragedy and the scientific hunt for the virus that caused it. Pete Davies. London: Michael Joseph, 1999.

Flu: The Story of the Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918 and the Search for the Virus That Caused It. Gina Kolata. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999. Kindle Edition. 

Influenza 1918: The Worst Epidemic in American History. Lynette Iezzoni. New York: TV Books, 1999.

Origin and evolution of the 1918 “Spanish” influenza virus hemagglutinin gene. A. H. Reid, T. G. Fanning, J. V. Hultin and J. K. Taubenberger. Proceedings of the National Academy of  Sciences, Vol. 96, No. 4, February 16, 1999, pp. 1651-6. 


The 1918 Influenza Virus: A killer comes into view. Jeffery K. Taubenberger, Ann H. Reid and Thomas G. Fanning. Virology, Vol. 274, No. 2, September 1, 2000, pp. 241–5.

Characterization of the 1918 “Spanish” influenza virus neuraminidase gene. A. H. Reid, T. G. Fanning, T. A. Janczewski and J. K. Taubenberger. Proceedings of the National Academy of  Sciences, Vol. 97, No. 12, June 6, 2000, pp. 6785-90.

Devil’s Flu: The World’s Deadliest Influenza Epidemic and the Scientific Hunt for the Virus That Caused It. Pete Davies. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2000.

Influenza A Pandemics of the 20th Century With Special Reference to 1918: Virology, Pathology and Epidemiology. J. S. Oxford. Reviews in Medical Virology, Vol. 10 , No. 2, March-April 2000, pp. 19-33.


The 1918 pandemic. Killer flu with a human-pig pedigree? J. Pickrell. Science. Vol. 292, No. 5519, May 11, 2001, p. 1041.

The 1918 Spanish influenza: integrating history and biology. Ann H. Reid, Jeffery K. Taubenberger and Thomas G. Fanning. Microbes and Infection, Vol. 3, No. 1, January 2001, pp. 81-7.

Early herald wave outbreaks of influenza in 1916 prior to the pandemic of 1918. J. S. Oxford, A. Sefton, R. Jackson, W. Innes, R. S. Daniels and N. P. A. S. Johnson. International Congress Series, Vol. 1219, October 2001, pp. 155-61.

Integrating Historical, Clinical and Molecular Genetic Data in Order to Explain the Origin and Virulence of the 1918 Spanish Influenza Virus. J. K. TaubenbergerA. H. ReidT. A. Janczewski and T. G. Fanning. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, Vol. 356, No. 1416, December 29, 2001, pp. 1829-39.  

Observations on Mortality during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic. Jeffrey Luk, Peter Gross and William W. Thompson. Clinical Infectious Diseases 33, 2001, pp. 1375-8.

Recombination in the hemagglutinin gene of the 1918 “Spanish flu”. M. J. Gibbs, J. S. Armstrong and A. J. Gibbs. Science. Vol. 293, Issue 5536, Sept 7, 2001, pp. 1842-5.

The So-Called Great Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918 May Have Originated in France in 1916. J. S. Oxford. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences Vol. 356, No. 1416, December 2001, pp. 1857-9.


1917 avian influenza virus sequences suggest that the 1918 pandemic virus did not acquire its hemagglutinin directly from birds. T. G. Fanning, R. D. Slemons, A. H. Reid, T. A. Janczewski, J. Dean and J. K. Taubenberger. Journal of Virology, Vol. 76, No. 15, August  2002, pp. 7860-2.

The 1918 ‘Spanish’ influenza pandemic and characterization of the virus that caused it. Jeffery K. Taubenberger and Ann H. Reid. In Influenza. C. W. Potter, editor, Elsevier Science B.V., 2002, p. 101.

The Age Pattern of Mortality in the 1918-19 Influenza Pandemic: An Attempted Explanation Based on Data for England and Wales. Christopher Langford. Medical History, [vol] 46, no. 1, 2002, pp. 1-20.

Characterization of the 1918 “Spanish” influenza virus matrix gene segment. A. H. Reid, T. G. Fanning, T. A. Janczewski, S. McCall and J. K. Taubenberger. Journal of Virology, Vol. 76, No. 21, November 2002, pp. 10717-23.

“Contact across a Diseased Boundary:” Urban Space and Social Interaction during Winnipeg’s Influenza Epidemic, 1918-1919. Esyllt Jones. Journal of the Canadian Historical Association, 13, 2002, pp. 119-39.

Existing antivirals are effective against influenza viruses with genes from the 1918 pandemic virus. T. M. Tumpey, A. García-Sastre, A. Mikulasova, J. K. Taubenberger, D. E. Swayne, P. Palese and C. F. Basler. Proceedings of the National Academy of  Sciences, Vol. 99, No. 21, October 15, 2002, pp. 13849-54.

The Impact of the 1918-1919 Influenza Epidemic on Virginia. Stephanie Forrest Barker. MA, University of Richmond, 2002.

Updating the Accounts: Global Mortality of the 1918-1920 “Spanish” Influenza Pandemic. Niall P. A. S. Johnson and Juergen Miller, Bulletin of Historical Medicine 76, 2002, pp. 105–115.

World War I may have allowed the emergence of “Spanish” influenza. J. S. Oxford, A. Sefton, R. Jackson, W. Innes, R. S. Daniels and N. P. A. S. Johnson. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol 2, February 2002, pp 111-14.


1918 influenza pandemic caused by highly conserved viruses with two receptor-binding variants. A. H. Reid, T. A. Janczewski, R. M. Lourens, A. J. Elliot, R. S. Daniels, C. L. Berry, J. S. Oxford and J. K. Taubenberger. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 9, No. 10, October 2003, pp. 1249-53.

Hunting the 1918 Flu: One Scientist’s Search For a Killer Virus. Kirsty Duncan. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003.

Measuring a Pandemic: Mortality, demography and geography. Niall P. Johnson. SIDeS, «Popolazione e Storia», Vol. 4, No. 2, 2003, pp. 31-51.

A New “Imperial Disease:” The Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19 and its Impact on the British Empire. David Killingray. Caribbean Quarterly, Vol. 49, No. 4, December 2003, pp. 30-49. 

The origin of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus: a continuing enigma. Ann H. Reid and  J. K. Taubenberger. Journal of General Virology, 84 (2003), 2285–92.

Relationship of pre-1918 avian influenza HA and NP sequences to subsequent avian influenza strains. A. H.Reid, T. G. Fanning, R. D. Slemons, T. A. Janczewski, J. Dean and J. K. Taubenberger. Avian Diseases, Vol. 47, No. 3 supplement, 2003, pp. 921-5.

Searching for the Springs of Health: Women and Working Families in Winnipeg’s 1918-1919 Influenza Epidemic. Esyllt Jones. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Manitoba, 2003.

Simulating the Effect of Quarantine on the Spread of the 1918–19 Flu in Central Canada. Lisa Sattenspiel and D.Ann Herring. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, Volume 65, Issue 1, January 2003, pp. 1-26.

The Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19: New Perspectives. Howard Phillips and David Killingray, eds. London, New York: Routledge, 2003.
• A virologist’s foreword. John S. Oxford.
• A historian’s foreword. Terence Ranger.
• Introduction. Howard Phillips and David Killingray.
1. A virologist’s perspective on the 1918-19 pandemic. Edwin D. Kilbourne. 
2. Genetic characterisation of the 1918 ‘Spanish’ influenza virus. Jeffery K. Taubenberger. 
3. The plague that was not allowed to happen: German medicine and the influenza epidemic of 1918-19 in Baden. Wilfried Witte. 
4. ‘You can’t do anything for influenza’: doctors, nurses and the power of gender during the influenza pandemic in the United States. Nancy K. Bristow.
5. Japan and New Zealand in the 1918 influenza pandemic: comparative perspectives on official responses and crisis management. Geoffrey W. Rice. 
6. Coping with the influenza pandemic: the Bombay experience. Mridula Ramanna.
7. Spanish influenza in China, 1918-20: a preliminary probe. Wataru Iijima.
8. Flu downunder: a demographic and geographic analysis of the 1919 epidemic in Sydney, Australia. Kevin McCracken and Peter Curson. 
9. The overshadowed killer: influenza in Britain in 1918-19. N. P. A. S. Johnson. 
10. Death in winter: Spanish flu in the Canadian subarctic. D. Ann Herring and Lisa Sattenspiel.
11. Spanish influenza seen from Spain. Beatriz Echeverri-Dávila.
12. A holocaust in a holocaust: the Great War and the 1918 ‘Spanish’ influenza epidemic in France. Patrick Zylberman.
13. Long-term effects of the 1918 ‘Spanish’ influenza epidemic on sex differentials of mortality in the USA: exploratory findings from historical data. Andrew Noymer and Michel Garenne. 
14. ‘A fierce hunger’: tracing impacts of the 1918-19 influenza epidemic in southwest Tanzania. James G. Ellison. 
15. ‘The dog that did not bark’: memory and the 1918 influenza epidemic in Senegal. Myron Echenberg. 
16. Transmission of, and protection against, influenza: epidemiologic observations beginning with the 1918 pandemic and their implications. Stephen C. Schoenbaum. 


1918 and All That. Edward C. Holmes. Science, Vol. 303, Issue 5665, March 19, 2004, pp. 1787-8.

Dr. Fred and the Spanish Lady: Fighting the Killer Flu. Betty O’Keefe and Ian Macdonald. Surrey, BC: Heritage House, 2004.

The Great Influenza: The Story of the Deadliest Pandemic in History. John M. Barry. Viking-Penguin, 2004.

A hypothesis: the conjunction of soldiers, gas, pigs, ducks, geese and horses in Northern France during the Great War provided the conditions for the emergence of the ‘Spanish’ influenza pandemic of 1918–1919. J. S. Oxford, R. Lambkin, A. Sefton, R. Daniels, A. Elliot, R. Brown and D. Gill. Vaccine 23 (2005) pp. 940-5.

The Re-Appearing Shadow of 1918: Trends in the Historiography of the 1918–19 Influenza Pandemic. Howard Phillips. Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2004, pp. 121-34.

Scottish ‘Flu: The Scottish Experience of “Spanish Flu.” Niall P. A. S. Johnson. The Scottish Historical Review, Vol. 83, No. 216, Part 2, October 2004, pp. 216-26.

The site of Origin of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic and Its Public Health Implications. John M. Barry. Journal of Translational Medicine, Vol. 2, No. 3, January 20, 2004, [4 pp.]

Transmissibility of 1918 pandemic influenza. Christina E. Mills, James M. Robins and Marc Lipsitch. Nature, Vol. 432, December 16, 2004, 904-6.


Black November: The 1918 Influenza Pandemic in New Zealand. Geoffrey W. Rice. Christchurch, NZ: Canterbury University Press, 2005.

 Characterization of the Reconstructed 1918 Spanish Influenza Pandemic Virus. Terrence M. Tumpey, Christopher F. Basler, Patricia V. Aguilar, Hui Zeng, Alicia Solórzano, David E. Swayne, Nancy J. Cox, Jacqueline M. Katz, Jeffery K. Taubenberger, Peter Palese and Adolfo García-Sastre. Science, Vol. 310, No. 5745, October 7, 2005, pp. 77-80.

“Cooperation in All Human Endeavour:” Quarantine and Immigrant Disease Vectors in the 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic in Winnipeg. Esyllt Jones. Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, [vol] 22, no. 1, 2005, pp. 57-82.

Did the 1918-19 Influenza Pandemic Originate in China? Christopher Langford. Population and Development Review, Vol. 31, No. 3, September 2005, pp. 473-505. 

Epidemiological evidence of an early wave of the 1918 influenza pandemic in New York City. Donald R. Olson, Lone Simonsen, Paul J. Edelson and Stephen S. Morse. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 102, No., 31, August 2, 2005, pp. 11059-63.

Fever of War: The Influenza Epidemic in the U.S. Army during World War I. Carol R. Byerly. New York University Press, 2005. Kindle ed.

The Horror at Home: The Canadian Military and the Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918. Mark Osborne Humphries. Journal of the Canadian Historical Association, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2005, pp. 235-60.

The Threat of Pandemic Influenza: Are We Ready? Workshop Summary. Stacey L. Knobler, Alison Mack, Adel Mahmoud and Stanley M. Lemon, Editors. National Academy of Sciences. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2005.
• 1918 Revisited: Lessons and Suggestions for Further Inquiry. John M. Barry.
• Chasing the Elusive 1918 Virus: Preparing for the Future by Examining the Past. Jeffery K. Taubenberger.
• Pandemic Influenza and Mortality: Past Evidence and Projections for the Future. L. Simonsen, D.R. Olson, C. Viboud, E. Heiman, R.J. Taylor, M.A. Miller and T.A. Reichert.


1918 influenza: the Mother of all Pandemics. Jeffery Taubenberger. Emerging Infectious Diseases 12, no. 1 (January 2006). 

Agent-based Modeling of the Spread of the 1918-1919 Spanish Flu in Three Canadian Fur Trading Communities. Caroline Ahillen. M.A. thesis, University of Missouri, Columbia, 2006.

Anatomy of a Pandemic: The 1918 Influenza in Hamilton. Edited by D. Ann Herring. Hamilton: Allegra Press, 2006.
[Authors were fourth-year Anthropology students at McMaster University.]
1. Why Study the 1918 Flu? D. Ann Herring.
2. Origins and Spread of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic. Lynn W. Shen.
3. Connections to World War I. Samantha Meyer and Peter Mayer.
4. Hamilton’s Epidemic Wave. Cheryl Venus and Kiran Persaud.
5. The Epidemic Spreads through the City. Andrea H. W. Chan and Hagen F. Kluge.
6. Understanding the Enigma: Age Distribution of Influenza-Related Deaths in Hamilton, Ontario. Katherine Wood.
7. Rob the Poor but Leave the Rich? Ellen E. Korol.
8. The Plight of the Children. Kirsty Bond.
9. Healing and Treatment: Who Answered the Call of the Sick? Anna Lisowska.
10. The Essence of Altruism: The Spirit of Volunteerism in Hamilton during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic. Mara Pope.
11. Steel City Shutdown: The 1918 Quarantine in Hamilton. Adam Benn.
12. “The Relics of Barbarism”: Resisting Public Health Efforts. Michael R. Pennell.
13. Hamilton’s Response to the 1918 Influenza Pandemic: Advertisements, Stigma and War Metaphors. Alexandra Prescott.
14. Children, School, Influenza: How are they Intertwined? Laura Fuller and Nurit Vizcardo.
15. Life from Death: The Effect of the 1918 Flu on Fertility in Hamilton. Caitlin Hoffman.
16. The 1918 Influenza Epidemic as an Agent of Transformation. Vanessa Manning.

Britain and the 1918-19 Influenza Pandemic: A Dark Epilogue. Niall Johnson. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2006. Routledge Studies in the Social History of Medicine.

Genomic analysis of increased host immune and cell death responses induced by 1918 influenza virus. John C. Kash, Terrence M. Tumpey, Sean C. Proll, Victoria Carter, Olivia Perwitasari, Matthew J. Thomas, Christopher F. Basler, Peter Palese, Jeffery K. Taubenberger, Adolfo García-Sastre, David E. Swayne and Michael G. Katze. Nature, Vol 443, No 5, October 2006.

Lessons Learned from Reconstructing the 1918 Influenza Pandemic. Adolfo GarcÌa-Sastre and Richard J. Whitley. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 194 (November 2006):  S127-S132.

The Origin and Virulence of the 1918 “Spanish” Influenza Virus. Jeffery K. Taubenberger. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 150(1), March 2006. pp. 86–112.

Out in the Cold and Back: New-Found Interest in the Great Flu. Guy Beiner. Cultural and Social History 3 (4), October 2006, pp. 496-505.

Politicizing the Labouring Body: Working Families, Death, and Burial in Winnipeg’s Influenza Epidemic, 1918-19. Labour: Studies in Working Class History of the Americas, [vol] 3, no. 3, 2006, pp. 57-75.

Scientific lessons from the first influenza pandemic of the 20th century. J.S. Oxford, R. Lambkin, A. Elliot, R. Daniels, A. Sefton and D. Gill. Vaccine [No.] 24, 2006, pp. 6742–6746.


Baptism of Fire: New Brunswick’s Public Health Movement and the 1918 Influenza Epidemic. Jane E. Jenkins. Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, Vol 24, [no] 2, 2007, pp. 317-42. 

Boats, Trains, and Immunity: The Spread of the Spanish Flu on the Island of Newfoundland. Craig T. Palmer, Lisa Sattenspiel and Chris Cassidy. Newfoundland and Labrador Studies, Volume 22, Number 2, 2007, pp. 1719-26.

Discovery and characterization of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus in historical context. Jeffery K. Taubenberger, Johan V. Hultin, and David M. Morens. Antiviral Therapy, 12:4 Pt. B, 2007, 581–591.

Influenza 1918: disease, death and struggle in Winnipeg. Esyllt Wynne Jones. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2007.

Social contexts, syndemics, and infectious disease in northern Aboriginal populations. Lisa Sattenspiel and Ann Herring. American Journal of Human Biology, [vol] 19, 2007, pp. 190-202.

What happened in China during the 1918 influenza pandemic? K.F. Cheng and P.C. Leung. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 11, 2007, 360-64.


Cross-Protection between Successive Waves of the 1918–1919 Influenza Pandemic: Epidemiological Evidence from US Army Camps and from Britain. John M. Barry, Cécile Viboud and Lone Simonsen. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, [no] 198, November 15, 2008, pp. 1427–34.

A Cruel Wind: Pandemic Flu in America, 1918-1920. Dorothy A. Pettit and Janice Bailie. Murfreesboro, Tennessee: Timberlane Books, 2008.  

Deaths from Bacterial Pneumonia during 1918–19 Influenza Pandemic. John F. Brundage and G. Dennis Shanks. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 14, No. 8, August 2008, pp. 1193-99.

Predominant Role of Bacterial Pneumonia as a Cause of Death in Pandemic Influenza: Implications for Pandemic Influenza Preparedness. David M. Morens, Jeffery K. Taubenberger and Anthony S. Fauci. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 198, October 1, 2008.

Was bacterial pneumonia the predominant cause of death in the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic? D. S. Fedson. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 199: 1408-9; author reply 1409-10.


The 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Literature and Memory. Caroline Hovanee. MA Thesis, Vanderbilt University. August 2009.

The design and use of an agent‐based model to simulate the 1918 influenza epidemic at Norway House, Manitoba. Connie Carpenter and Lisa Sattenspiel. American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 21, Issue 3, May 2009, pp. 290-300.

Living with Enza: The Forgotten Story of Britain and the Great Flu Pandemic of 1918. Mark Honigsbaum. London: Macmillan, 2009.

Mortality burden of the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic in Europe. Séverine Ansart, Camille Pelat, Pierre-Yves Boelle, Fabrice Carrat, Antoine Flahault and Alain-Jacques Valleron. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, [no.] 3, 2009, pp. 99–106. 

Origins of the Spanish Influenza pandemic (1918–1920) and its relation to the First World War. Anton Erkoreka. Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine : An International Journal of Biomedical Research. 3(2), December 2009, pp. 190–94.

The Persistent Legacy of the 1918 Influenza Virus. David M. Morens, M.D., Jeffery K. Taubenberger, M.D., Ph.D., and Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., The New England Journal of Medicine 361:3, July 16, 2009, pp. 225-29.

The Spanish Influenza Epidemic of 1918-1919: The Spokane Experience. Keirsten E. Snover. M.A. thesis, Eastern Washington University, 2008.


The 1918 influenza pandemic: Lessons for 2009 and the future. David M. Morens, Jeffery K. Taubenberger, Hillery A. Harvey and Matthew J. Memoli. Critical Care Medicine, [vol] 38, [no] 4 Suppl, April 2010.

[Lessons Learned from the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic.] A Message from the Editor. Captain Laurence D. Reed. Public Health Reports, Vol. 125, Supplement 3, April 2010, pp. 1-2. 

    • Foreword: 1918 and 2009: a Tale of Two Pandemics. Steven C. Reid, Thomas R. Frieden, Anne Schuchat and Peter A. Briss.
    • Guest Editorial: The 1918-1919 influenza pandemic in the United States: Lessons learned ands challenges exposed. Alexandra Minna Stern, Martin S. Cetron and Howard Markel.
    • Influenza in 1918: An Epidemic in Images. Julian A. Navarro.
    • Influenza: The Once and Future Pandemic. Jeffery K. Taubenberger and David M. Morens.
    • The State of Science, Microbiology, and Vaccines Circa 1918. John M. Eyler.
    • “Spanish Flu, or Whatever It Is. . . .”: The Paradox of Public Health in a Time of Crisis. David Rosner.
    • “Destroyer and Teacher”: Managing the Masses During the 1918–1919 Influenza Pandemic. Nancy Tomes.
    • “Better Off in School”: School Medical Inspection as a Public Health Strategy During the 1918–1919 Influenza Pandemic in the United States. Alexandra Minna Stern, Mary Beth Reilly, Martin S. Cetron and Howard Markel.
    • The 1918 Influenza Epidemic in New York City: A Review of the Public Health Response. Francesco Aimone.
    • The U.S. Military and the Influenza Pandemic of 1918–1919. Carol Byerly.
    • The American Red Cross and Local Response to the 1918 Influenza Pandemic: A Four-City Case Study. Marian Moser Jones.
    • “Alert to the Necessities of the Emergency”: U.S. Nursing During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic. Arlene W. Keeling.
    • “There Wasn’t a Lot of Comforts in Those Days:” African Americans, Public Health, and the 1918 Influenza Epidemic. Vanessa Northington Gamble.
    • Immigration, Ethnicity, and the Pandemic. Alan M. Kraut.
    • “It’s as Bad as Anything Can Be”: Patients, Identity, and the Influenza Pandemic. Nancy K. Bristow.

Mortality patterns associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic in Mexico: evidence for a spring herald wave and lack of preexisting immunity in older populations. Gerardo Chowell, Cécile Viboud, Lone Simonsen, Mark A. Miller, and Rodolfo Acuna-Soto. Journal of Infectious Diseases, [vol] 202, [no] 4, August 15, 2010, pp. 567–75.

Recurrence and Resilience: The Third Wave of the 1918-19 Influenza Pandemic in Hamilton. Edited by D. Ann Herring and Sally Carraher. Hamilton, Ontario: Department of Anthropology, McMaster University, 2010.
[Authors of 22 articles were fourth-year Anthropology students at McMaster.]

“Send Us Only Your Serious Cases.” Delivering Flu to Toronto: An Anthropological Analysis of the 1918-19 Influenza Epidemic in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Karen Slonim. Ph.D. thesis, University of Missouri, Columbia, 2010. 

Social Contexts, Syndemics, and Infectious Disease in Northern Aboriginal Populations. Lisa Sattenspiel and Ann Herring. American Journal of Human Biology, [vol] 19, no. 2, March 2010, pp. 190-202.

The Spanish influenza pandemic in occidental Europe (1918–1920) and victim age. Anton Erkoreka. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, [No.] 4, pp. 81–89.

What’s Old Is New: 1918 Virus Matches 2009 H1N1 Strain. Jon Cohen. Science, 26 Mar 2010: Vol. 327, Issue 5973, pp. 1563-1564.


Autopsy series of 68 cases dying before and during the 1918 influenza pandemic peak. Zong-Mei Sheng, Daniel S. Chertow, Xavier Ambroggio, Sherman McCall, Ronald M. Przygodzki, Robert E. Cunningham, Olga A. Maximova, John C. Kash, David M. Morens, and Jeffery K. Taubenberger. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, [vol] 108, [no] 39, September 27, 2011, 16416-21.

The Forgotten Apocalypse: Katherine Anne Porter’s “Pale Horse, Pale Rider,” Traumatic Memory, and the Influenza Pandemic of 1918. David A. Davis. Southern Literary Journal, volume xliii, number 2, spring 2011, pp. 55-74.

Geography May Explain Adult Mortality from the 1918–20 Influenza Pandemic. Svenn-Erik Mamelund. Epidemics, [vol] 3, 2011, pp. 46–60.

Influenza activity in Saint Joseph, Missouri 1910-1923: Evidence for an early wave of the 1918 pandemic. Brian L. Hoffman. PLOS (Public Library of Science) Currents, November 17, 2011.

Pathogenesis of the 1918 Pandemic Influenza Virus. Tokiko Watanabe and Yoshihiro Kawaoka. PLOS Pathogens, Vol 7, Issue 1, January 2011, 4 pp.

Relationship between “purulent bronchitis” in military populations in Europe prior to 1918 and the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic. G. Dennis Shanks, Alison MacKenzie, Michael Waller and John F. Brundage. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, Vol. 6, Issue 4, July 2012, pp. 235-239.


1918 influenza, a puzzle with missing pieces. D. M. Morens and J. K. Taubenberger. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 2012, pp. 332–335

American Pandemic: The Lost Worlds of the 1918 Influenza Epidemic. Nancy K. Bristow. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Envisioning Disease, Gender, and War: Women’s Narratives of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic. Jane Elizabeth Fisher. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

Epidemic Encounters: Influenza, Society and Culture in Canada, 1918-20. Magda Fahrni and Esyllt W. Jones. Vancouver/Toronto: UBC Press, 2012.
1. The Limits of Necessity: Public Health, Dissent, and the War Effort during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic. Mark Osborne Humphries.
2. “Rendering Valuable Service:” The Politics of Nursing during the 1918-19 Influenza. Linda Quiney.
3. “Respectfully Submitted:” Citizens and Public Letter Writing during Montreal’s Influenza Epidemic, 1918-20. Magda Fahrni.
4. The North-South Divide: Social Inequality and Morality from the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Hamilton, Ontario. D. Ann Herring and Ellen Korol.
5. Beyond Biology: Understanding the Social Impact of Infectious Disease in Two Aboriginal Communities. Karen Slonim.
6. A Geographical Analysis of the Spread of Spanish Influenza in Quebec, 1918-20. Francis Dubois, Jean-Pierre Thouez and Denis Goulet.
7. Flu Stories: Engaging with Disease, Death and Modernity in British Columbia, 1918-19. Mary-Ellen Kelm.
8. Spectral Influenza: Winnipeg’s Hamilton Family, Interwar Spiritualism and Pandemic Disease. Esyllt Jones.
9. Toronto’s Health Department in Action: Influenza in 1918 and SARS in 2003. Heather MacDougall.

Mortality From the Influenza Pandemic of 1918–1919: The Case of India. Siddharth Chandra, Goran Kuljanin and Jennifer Wray. Demography, [no] 49, 2012, pp. 857-65.

Relationship between “purulent bronchitis” in military populations in Europe prior to 1918 and the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic. G. Dennis Shanks, Alison MacKenzie, Michael Waller and John F. Brundage. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, Vol. 6, Issue 4, July 2012, pp. 235-239.

Spanish Influenza in the City of Vancouver, British Columbia, 1918-1919. Sarah Buchanan. M.Sc. thesis, University of Victoria, 2012.


The 1918–19 influenza pandemic revisited. N. Jivraj and A. Butler. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, v. 43, 2013, pp. 347–52.

The Fight against Influenza. Scientific American. Classics: Infectious Disease. Number 21, November 2013.
[113 pp of articles 1889-2012]
Influenza: Trying to Catch a Moving Target. Jeffery K. Taubenberger.
Capturing a Killer Flu Virus. Jeffery K. Taubenberger, Ann H. Reid and Thomas G. Fanning. [January 2005, pp 62-71]

Fighting Flu: Military Pathology, Vaccines, and the Conflicted Identity of the 1918–19 Pandemic in Britain. Michael Bresalier. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Vol. 68, No. 1, January 2013, pp. 87-128.

Inferring the causes of the three waves of the 1918 influenza pandemic in England and Wales. Daihai He, Jonathan Dushoff, Troy Day, Junling Ma and David J. D. Earn. Proceeding of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences, Vol. 280, Issue 1766, September 7, 2013.

Influenza-Associated Mortality during the 1918–1919 Influenza Pandemic in Alaska and Labrador: A Comparison. Svenn-Erik Mamelund, Lisa Sattenspiel and Jessica Dimka. Social Science History, 37:2, Summer 2013, pp. 177-229. 

The Influenza Pandemic of 1918–1919: A Brief History with Documents. Susan Kingsley Kent Boston/New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2013. Macmillan ebook.

The last plague: Spanish influenza and the politics of public health in Canada. Mark Osborne Humphries. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2013.

Pacific islands which escaped the 1918—1919 influenza pandemic and theirsubsequent mortality experiences. G. D. Shanks and J. F. Brundage. Epidemiology and Infection, Vol. 141, No. 2, February 2013, pp. 353-6.

The Spanish Flu: Narrative and Cultural Identity in Spain, 1918. Ryan A. Davis. New York: Palgrave Macmillan and St Martin’s Press, 2013. 


1918 Flu Pandemic That Killed 50 Million Originated in China, Historians Say. Chinese laborers transported across Canada thought to be source. Dan Vergano. National Geographic, January 24, 2014.

Death from 1918 pandemic influenza during the First World War: a perspective from personal and anecdotal evidence. Peter C. Wever and Leo van Bergen. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, 2014, pp. 538-46.

The Flu Epidemic of 1918: America’s Experience in the Global Health Crisis. Sandra Opdycke. New York: Routledge, 2014.

Genesis and pathogenesis of the 1918 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus. Michael Worobey, Guan-Zhu Hana and Andrew Rambaut. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 111, no. 22, June 3, 2014, pp.  8107-12.

A History of the Great Influenza Pandemics, Death, Panic and Hysteria, 1830-1920. Mark Honigsbaum. London: I. B. Tauris & Co Ltd., 2014. Google Play edition.

The Influenza Epidemic 1918-19 in North Cardiganshire. Stuart John Ellison. BA Hons dissertation, Aberystwyth University.

The Other Forgotten Pandemic: Canada and the Spanish Flu in 1920. Taylor Jackson,  Department of History, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario. Proceedings of The National Conference On Undergraduate Research (NCUR) 2014, University of Kentucky, Lexington, April 3-5, 2014.

Paths of Infection: The First World War and the Origins of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic. Mark Osborne Humphries. War in History [vol] 21, [no] 1, January 2014, pp. 55-81.

The Recent Wave of ‘Spanish’ Flu Historiography. Howard Phillips. Social History of Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 4, November 2014, pp. 789–808.

The Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919: Perspectives from the Iberian Peninsula and the Americas. Edited by María-Isabel Porras-Gallo and Ryan A. Davis. University of Rochester Press, Boydell & Brewer [UK], 2014.


The Demographic Links Between the 1890 and 1918 Influenza Pandemics in Ontario. Stacey A. Hallman. Ph.D. thesis, University of Western Ontario, 2015.

The Influenza Pandemic in Japan, 1918-1920: The First World War between Humankind and a Virus. A. Hayami, translated by Lynne E. Riggs and Manabu Takechi. Kyoto: International Research Center for Japanese Studies, 2015.

Mennonites, Community and Disease: Mennonite Diaspora and Responses to the 1918-1920 Influenza Pandemic in Hanover, Manitoba. Vanessa Quiring. M.A. thesis, University of Manitoba/University of Winnipeg, 2015 


The 1918 influenza pandemic and subsequent birth deficit in Japan. Siddharth Chandra and Yan-Liang Yu. Demographic Research, Vol. 33,  July 2015, pp. 313-326.

Disparities in influenza mortality and transmission related to sociodemographic factors within Chicago in the pandemic of 1918. Kyra H. Grantz, Madhura S. Rane, Henrik Salje, Gregory E. Glass, Stephen E. Schachterle and Derek A. T. Cummings. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 113, no. 48, November 29, 2016, pp.  13839-44.

A Missed Summer Wave of the 1918–1919 Influenza Pandemic: Evidence From Household Surveys in the United States and Norway. Svenn-Erik Mamelund, Bjørn Haneberg and Siri Mjaaland. Open Forum Infectious Diseases, 2016.

The next pandemic : on the front lines against humankind’s gravest dangers. Ali S. Khan with William Patrick. New York: PublicAffairs, 2016.

No evidence of 1918 influenza pandemic origin in Chinese laborers/soldiers in France. G. Dennis Shanks. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, Vol.  79, 2016, pp. 46-48.

Reviewing the History of Pandemic Influenza: Understanding Patterns of Emergence and Transmission. Patrick R. Saunders-Hastings and Daniel Krewski. Pathogens, [vol] 5, no 4, December 2016, 66 


Flu, society and the state: the political, social and economic implications of the 1918-1920 influenza pandemic in Queensland. Patrick George Hodgson. PhD thesis, James Cook University, 2017.

The Great Influenza Pandemic: What Really Happened in 1918? Lawrence Broxmeyer. Pulmonology Research and Respiratory Care, Vol 1, No 2, 2017, pp. 53-92.

Pale Rider: The Spanish Flu of 1918 and How it Changed the World. Laura Spinney. Random House, 2017. Kindle edition.


100 years since the 1918 influenza pandemic. Susanna Esposito. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, Vol 14, No 3, 2018, pp. 504-07.

The 1918 flu, 100 years later. Jessica A. Belser and Terrence M. Tumpey. Science, Vol. 359, Issue 6373, January 19, 2018, pp. 255.

The 1918 influenza pandemic: Ecological, historical, and evolutionary perspectives. Charles L. Nunn. Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, 2018, pp. 199–200.
• The continual threat of influenza virus infections at the human–animal interface: What is new from a one health perspective? Emily S. Bailey, Jessica Y. Choi, Jane K. Fieldhouse, Laura K. Borkenhagen, Juliana Zemke, Dingmei Zhang and Gregory C. Gray. pp. 192–198.
• The influenza of 1918: Evolutionary perspectives in a historical context. Margaret Humphreys. pp. 219-229.
• Influenza, evolution, and the next pandemic. David S. Fedson. pp. 260-69.

The 1918 Influenza Pandemic: Lessons Learned and Not—Introduction to the Special Section. Wendy E. Parmet and Mark A. Rothstein. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 108, No. 11, November 2018, pp. 1435-36. 
• The Mother of All Pandemics Is 100 Years Old (and Going Strong)! David M. Morens and Jeffery K. Taubenberger. pp. 1449–1454.
• The Spanish Flu, Epidemics, and the Turn to Biomedical Responses 1455
• The Physician’s Duty to Treat During Pandemics 1459
• Spanish Flu: When Infectious Disease Names Blur Origins and Stigmatize Those Infected 1462
• Better Prepare Than React: Reordering Public Health Priorities 100 Years After the Spanish Flu Epidemic. Michael Greenberger. pp. 1465–1469.
• 100 Years of Medical Countermeasures and Pandemic Influenza Preparedness. Barbara J. Jester, Timothy M. Uyeki, Anita Patel, Lisa Koonin and Daniel B. Jernigan. pp. 1469–1472.

Deconstructing the 1918–1919 Influenza Pandemic in the Maltese Islands: A Biosocial Perspective. Lianne Tripp, Larry Alexander Sawchuk and Mario Saliba. Current Anthropology, Vol 59, No 2, April 2018, pp. 229-39. 

Influenza Cataclysm, 1918. David M. Morens and Jeffery K. Taubenberger. The New England Journal of Medicine, [vol] 379 [no] 24, December 13, 2018, pp. 2285-87.

Influenza Pandemic Symposium, Introduction: a century after the 1918 influenza pandemic. Gerardo Chowell, Patrick Sullivan and Richard Rothenberg. Annals of Epidemiology, Volume 28, Issue 5, May 2018, pp. 265-66.
• Excess mortality patterns during 1918-1921 influenza pandemic in the state of Arizona, USA. Sushma Dahal, Melinda Jenner, Linh Dinh, Kenji Mizumoto, Cecile Viboud and Gerardo Chowell. Annals of Epidemiology, Volume 28, Issue 5, May 2018, pp. 273-80.
• A review of the 1918 herald pandemic wave: importance for contemporary pandemic response strategies. Lone Simonsen, Gerardo Chowell, Viggo Andreasen, Robert Gaffey, John Barry, Don Olson and Cecile Viboud., pp. 281-88.
• We could learn much more from 1918 pandemic—the (mis)fortune of research relying on original death certificates. Wladimir J. Alonso, Francielle C. Nascimento, Gerardo Chowell and Cynthia Schuck-Paim. pp 289-92.

“Like Brave Soldiers:” Nursing and the Spanish Influenza Epidemic of 1918 in the United States. Elizabeth Hile. M.A. thesis, Bowling Green State University, 2018.

More Deadly Than War: The Hidden History of the Spanish Flu and the First World War. Kenneth C. Davis. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2018. Ebook on Kindle.

Origins of the 1918 Pandemic: Revisiting the Swine “Mixing Vessel” Hypothesis. Martha I. Nelson and Michael Worobey. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 187, No. 12, July 26, 2018, pp. 2498-2502.

Pandemic 1918, Eyewitness Accounts from the Greatest Medical Holocaust in Modern History. Catharine Arnold. St Martin’s Press, 2018. Google Play edition.

A shot-in-the-dark email leads to a century-old family treasure — and hope of cracking a deadly flu’s secret. Helen Branswell. Stat, December 5, 2018.

Spanish influenza redux: revisiting the mother of all pandemics. Mark Honigsbaum. The Lancet, Vol 391, Issue 10139, June 23, 2018, pp. 2492-95.

Unanswered questions about the 1918 influenza pandemic: origin, pathology, and the virus itself. John S. Oxford and Douglas Gill.  The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 18, Issue 11, November 1, 2018. 

Very, Very, Very Dreadful, The Influenza Pandemic of 1918. Albert Marrin. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2018. Google Play edition.

We All Expected to Die: Spanish Influenza in Labrador, 1918-1919. Anne Budgell. ISER Books, 2018.


Making Universal Influenza Vaccines: Lessons from the 1918 Pandemic. David M. Morens and Jeffery K. Taubenberger. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, January 31, 2019.

The origins of the great pandemic. Michael Worobey, Jim Cox and Douglas Gill. Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, 2019, pp. 18–25.

The Spanish Influenza Pandemic: a lesson from history 100 years after 1918. M. Martini, V. Gazzanica, N. L. Bragazzi and I. Barberis. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene, 2019 Mar; 60(1): E64–E67.

Published March 25, 2020; latest update May 31, 2020.